Wednesday, August 5, 2020

What kind of fluids should a baby or toddler with a cold have?

Extra fluids can thin mucus so their nose won't be as stuffy and they'll cough up all that gunk more easily. Most drinks, like water, juice, and milk, are fine. Warm liquids like chicken soup or apple juice can soothe a sore throat. Be sure they’re warm, not hot, to avoid burns. Babies under 6 months should only drink breast milk or formula, not water or juice. But you may offer more milk than usual for coughs or colds.

Thursday, July 30, 2020



India has emerged as the fastest growing major economy in the world and is expected to be one of the top three economic powers of the world over the next 10-15 years, backed by its strong democracy and partnerships.

Market size

India’s nominal GDP growth rate is estimated at 12 per cent in 2019-20. The estimate for 2018-19 was 11.5 per cent. During Q2 of 2019-20, GDP (at constant 2011-12 prices), GDP stood at Rs 33.16 lakh crore (US$ 474.46 billion) showing a growth rate of 4.3 percent over the corresponding quarter of previous year.

India has retained its position as the third largest startup base in the world with over 8,900-9,300 startups, with about 1,300 new start-ups being founded in 2019, according to a report by NASSCOM. India also witnessed the addition of 7 unicorns in 2019 till August, taking the total tally up to 24.

India's labour force is expected to touch 160-170 million by 2020, based on rate of population growth, increased labour force participation, and higher education enrolment, among other factors, according to a study by ASSOCHAM and Thought Arbitrage Research Institute.

India's foreign exchange reserves were Rs 33.98 lakh crore (US$ 476.09 billion) in the week up to February 14, 2020, according to data from the RBI.

Recent Developments 

With the improvement in the economic scenario, there have been various investments in various sectors of the economy. The M&A activity in India increased 53.3 per cent to US$ 77.6 billion in 2017 while private equity (PE) deals reached US$ 24.4 billion. Some of the important recent developments in Indian economy are as follows:

  • Exports from India increased 2.13 per cent year-on-year to US$ 491.64 billion in April 2019-February 2020.
  • Nikkei India Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) stood at 54.5 in February 2020, showing expansion in the sector.
  • Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) activity in the country has reached US$ 48 billion during Jan-Sept 2019.
  • The gross tax revenue stood at Rs 15.04 lakh crore (US$ 215.28 billion) out of which Income tax collection contributed Rs 3.52 lakh crore (US$ 50.43 billion) between April 2019-January 2020.
  • Companies in India have raised around US$ 114.1 billion through 768 Initial Public Offers (IPO) first nine months of 2019.
  • India's Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) equity inflows reached US$ 456.79 billion during April 2000 to December 2019, with maximum contribution from services, computer software and hardware, telecommunications, construction, trading and automobiles.
  • India’s Index of Industrial Production (IIP) for the month of January 2020 stood at 137.1. The cumulative growth for the period April 2019-January 2020 over the corresponding period of the previous year stood at 0.5 per cent.
  • Consumer Price Index (CPI) – Combined inflation was 4.5 per cent in April 2019-January 2020 as compared to 3.6 per cent in April 2018-January 2019.
  • Around 12 million jobs in a year were created in India during 2015-19.
  • India improved its ranking in the World Bank's Doing Business Report by 14 spots over last year and is ranked 63rd among 190 countries in 2020 edition of the report.
  • India is expected to have 100,000 startups by 2025, which will create employment for 3.25 million people and US$ 500 billion in value, as per Mr T V Mohan Das Pai, Chairman, Manipal Global Education.
  • The World Bank has stated that private investments in India is expected to grow by 8.8 per cent in FY 2018-19 to overtake private consumption growth of 7.4 per cent, and thereby drive the growth in India's gross domestic product (GDP) in FY 2018-19.
  • India is expected to retain its position as the world’s leading recipient of remittances in 2018, with total remittances touching US$ 80 billion, according to World Bank’s Migration and Development Brief.
Government Initiatives

The first Union Budget of the third decade of 21st century was presented by the Minister for Finance & Corporate Affairs, Ms Nirmala Sitharaman in the Parliament on February 1, 2020. The budget aimed at energising the Indian economy through a combination of short-term, medium-term, and long-term measures.

Total expenditure for 2020-21 is budgeted at Rs 37.14 lakh crore (US$ 531.53 billion), an increase of 13 per cent from 2019-20 (revised budget estimates).

Numerous foreign companies are setting up their facilities in India on account of various government initiatives like Make in India and Digital India. Mr Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India, has launched the Make in India initiative with an aim to boost the manufacturing sector of Indian economy, to increase the purchasing power of an average Indian consumer, which would further boost demand, and hence spur development, in addition to benefiting investors. The Government of India, under the Make in India initiative, is trying to give boost to the contribution made by the manufacturing sector and aims to take it up to 25 per cent of the GDP from the current 17 per cent. Besides, the Government has also come up with Digital India initiative, which focuses on three core components: creation of digital infrastructure, delivering services digitally and to increase the digital literacy.

Some of the recent initiatives and developments undertaken by the government are listed below:

  • India is expected to attract investment of around US$ 100 billion in developing the oil and gas infrastructure over the next five years.
  • With the help of the new agriculture export policy, the agri exports from India is likely to reach the export target of US$ 60 billion by the year 2022.
  • In India, Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), flagship initiative of NITI Aayog, launched the Atal Community Innovation Centre (ACIC) program in NITI Aayog which aims at spurring community Innovation in underserved and unserved areas of the country.
  • National Institute for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog released a strategic document titled 'Strategy for New India @75' to help India become a US$ 4 trillion economy by FY23.
  • The Government of India is going to increase public health spending to 2.5 per cent of GDP by 2025.
  • For implementation of Agriculture Export Policy, government has approved an outlay Rs 206.8 crore (US$ 29.59 million) for 2019, aimed at doubling farmers income by 2022.
  • Government is planning to launch Bharatcraft portal, an e-commerce marketing platform to market and sell the products.
  • Under the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban), government has sanctioned more than 96.50 Lakh houses under PMAY(U) and approved 606 proposals for the construction of 3,31,075 houses with an overall investment of Rs 15,125 crore (US$ 2.16 billion).
  • The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has approved to increase the authorized capital of Food Corporation of India (FCI) from existing Rs 3,500 crore (US$ 500.79 million) to Rs 10,000 crore (US$ 1.43 billion).
  • India has registered a 26.9 per cent reduction in Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) since 2013: Sample Registration System Bulletin-2016.
  • Around 26.02 million households have been electrified as on 31st March 2019 under the Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (SAUBHAGYA). 
  • Prime Minister's Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) will be continued with an outlay of Rs 5,500 crore (US$ 755.36 million) for three years from 2017-18 to 2019-20, according to the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA).
  • As per the Union Budget 2019-20, public sector banks (PSBs) will be provided with a capital infusion of Rs 70,000 crore (US$ 10.02 billion), allowing NBFCs to raise foreign debt.
  • The mid-term review of India's Foreign Trade Policy (FTP) 2015-20 has been released by Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India, under which annual incentives for labour intensive MSME sectors have been increased by 2 per cent.
  • Under the scheme Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY-III), government plans to spend Rs 50,250 crore (US$ 7.19 billion) to build roads to boost rural connectivity.

Saturday, July 25, 2020

Foods You Should Never Feed Your Dog


Avocados make their own fungicide, called persin. Pretty cool, huh? But dogs are allergic to it (and some humans, too), so don't let your dog near that guacamole. Persin is found in the seeds, leaves, and bark of avocado trees, too, so if you have an avocado tree in your yard, keep your dog away.


While it might be funny to watch a dog lapping up some beer (YouTube will attest to this), alcohol will make a pet intoxicated much quicker than it will have an effect on a human. Too much alcohol can quickly lead to alcohol poisoning and even death.


The caffeine found in coffee is a stimulant: that's why so many of us need that cup to get going in the morning. But to a dog, such a stimulant can result in heart palpitations and muscle tremors. Letting your dog lick the foam off your cappuccino is not only unsanitary, but harmful to his health.


While we're on the topic of cappuccino foam, it's worth mentioning that milk isn't good for your dog either. Humans have an enzyme that breaks down lactose in milk, but dogs don't have very much of this enzyme. Ingesting milk can result in intestinal upset and even diarrhea. Water should be the only beverage your pup drinks.


Many of us have heard not to let dogs eat chocolate, but why? Chocolate contains a caffeine-like substance called theobromine, which wreaks havoc on a dog's nervous system. It can result in vomiting, diarrhea, irregular heartbeat, tremors, seizures, and even death. Don't panic, though: a ten-pound dog would have to eat an entire chocolate bar to be in any serious danger. Stay on the safe side and hide the chocolate in the refrigerator where your dog can't get to it.


This flavorful fruit is not as popular in the US as it is in Asia, but certain varieties are native to the Midwest and the Asian varieties grow well in California. There is a chemical found in persimmons that can react with stomach acid and create a gluey mass that can obstruct the intestines. It's a rare occurrence, but it's best to keep your dog away from persimmons regardless.

Chives, Garlic, and Onions

Chives, garlic, and onions are in the allium genus of plants, and another thing they all have in common is that they can irritate your dog's digestive system. Consumption of mass quantities can also deplete your dog's red blood cells, leading to anemia. Don't let your dog ingest these foods. It wouldn't help his doggy breath anyway!

Peaches, Plums, and Apricots

The pits in these stone fruits can obstruct your dog's bowels. They also contain small amounts of cyanide, which is poisonous to dogs (and humans).

Macadamia Nuts

It only takes a small amount of macadamia nuts to make your dog sick. Watch for signs of weakness or depression. More severe cases of macadamia poisoning can result in hypothermia and tremors. Symptoms may not appear for up to twelve hours. Keep your dog away from cookies and candy that may contain macadamia nuts.


Gum is another substance that can result in a bowel obstruction, should your dog swallow it. But something you may not know about is Xylitol, a sweetener sometimes found in gum or candy, that is extremely toxic to dogs. If your dog consumes Xylitol his liver could fail—something you certainly don't want to risk.


Even if the candy you feed your dog doesn't contain chocolate, macadamia nuts, or Xylitol, sugar itself is no good for your dog. It can contribute to obesity and diabetes (which is, of course, why humans should avoid it as well).

Grapes and Raisins

Scientists and veterinarians don't quite know why, but grapes and raisins can lead to kidney failure in dogs. Even a small amount can be dangerous, so use caution if your kids like to eat grapes or raisins as a snack. If your dog is affected, hyperactivity or repeated vomiting are usually the preliminary signs, and can then turn into lethargy and depression within a day or so. Take your dog to the vet immediately if he exhibits these symptoms after eating grapes or raisins, or if there's a chance he's eaten some.

Raw Eggs

An enzyme present in raw eggs interferes with the absorption of a particular vitamin in dogs, which can cause skin or coat problems down the road. Raw foods also pose a risk of salmonella, as they do in humans.


A potato chip or two isn't likely to cause any harm, but consumption of mass quantities of salt can lead to dehydration, high temperature, depression, tremors, vomiting, and even death in dogs. Bottom line: hide that salt shaker where your dog can't find it.


Dogs and bones go hand in hand, right? Not quite. For the domestic pet inexperienced in hunting and eating wild animals, bones are more of a hazard than a way of life. Bone splinters can get lodged in your dog's throat or even puncture his digestive tract. Better stick to toy bones or bone-shaped treats instead.

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